Lets start - step#1 - The types of NUMBERS - Integers and Percents

The types of NUMBERS we need - Integers and Percent's

mort rate

Kings county NY 5-30-20 Covid 19 mortality rate or 9.28% or 9 out of 100 exposed there may sure DIE.

 

Mathematics is the use of applied logic to create structures that are abstracted from material things and thus they can be of very GENERAL or widespread use. If this is too much just skip it... may be it was to brag a bit?

One such creation we all know is NUMBERS.

To move quickly we present several statements for analysis:

1. The population of the United States is 328,000,000.

2. The percentage of cases in the USA that has had Covid-19 is 4%.

3. A Percentage is a an absolute number.

pct

 

Discussion:

1. The population of the United States is 328,000,000.

Wrong - since no year was specified it is incorrect or incomplete. By the way this is an example of an Integer or a counting number - the simplest.

It WAS true in 2019 but in 2020 the actual number is  or 331,002,651. So it says we have 3M more people.

One thing to see here in general, when you see rounded numbers, like 328M be suspicious. It can be from 328,000,001 to  328,999,999. That is why in all governments they report transactions in whole numbers, because they steal the change... maybe a joke?

In summary for #1 when a number is for a specific time or date it should say so. Avoid excessive rounding, be precise. More important - this is one number of what is called a TIME SERIES, there is one such number at the end of each year

Definition: a Time Series is a paired set of  numbers where one is related to the time or date of the event and the 2nd number is the measured quantity.

2. The percentage of cases in the USA that has had Covid-19 is 4%

Wrong - it was at some point in time, but my last calc it is much higher, like 6%. It is wrong because the statement is not complete - it does not specify when.

Also note the lack of decimal points. 4% implies 4.00%. For a population of 331,002,651 the 0.001% is 331,000 - and that is a lot of people - a whole town.

3. A Percentage is a an absolute number. Wrong - read below. You need to know the assumed whole or the size of the population under consideration.

Basically 6% means 6 out of each 100 people. Out of every group of 100 in the country, IF ALL GET INFECTED, 6 will be chosen by God to join him. And by the way you may visualize God as an external or internal BEING as your wish.

So the big message here is that PERCENTS are NOT simple numbers like 1,2,3.

They are a simplified expression of a rational number or fraction, where the denominator is always 100. It's is kind of a base 10 fractions or metric factions?

spanish flu 1918

Note the similarity to Covid 19 symptoms

 

Lets list some common cases:

0/100,1/100,2/100,3/100,...,10/100,...25/100,...50/100,...75/100,...99/100,100/100

or in the percentage shorthand:

0%, 1%, 2%, 3%,...10%,...25%,...50%, ... 75%, ... 99% and finally 100%.

Now to be complete - fractions have no unique form, unlike integers, so:

25/100 = 5x5/5x20 = 5/20 = 1x5/4x5 = 1/5. (the common 5 cancels out each time)

Likewise: 50% = 50/100 = 1/2, 75% = 3/5, 100% = 100/100 = 1.

So a percentage or fraction is a given part of a whole.

So with percent's ask first: WHAT IS THE WHOLE?

So for 6% above of Covid 19 cases in a given time in USA in 2020 it is

6% of the whole population in that year or how much is that?

First a percent needs to be changed into a decimal by diving by a 100.

So 6% is 6/100 or 0.06.  In general:  N% = N/100.  

Note the second N/100 has NO more the percent sign, it's an integer.

BTW: When you divide by a 100 just move the decimal point two places to the left.

Then 6% of the total us population in 2020 of  331,002,651 is precisely:

 331,002,651 x 0.06 = 19,860,159 or rounding 20 million people! 

Staggering - then you see the danger in this Covid-19  or any PANDEMIC. At worst if ALL got the illness 20M can die!

 

spanish flu 1918Spanish flu 1918

 

 BTW: The 1918 Pandemic killed 40 to 50 Million or who knows?

And this was in a time of a much smaller world population.

The movement of massive numbers of soldiers via ship and trains etc. did spread the disease worldwide. Today Covid-19 was spread much faster by tourist ships and air travel. And the distraction in USA was not a WWI but in the USA an election and politics.